|Battle of Horseshoe Bend|
|Part of The Creek War|
|Commanders and leaders|
|Timeline:||Trail of Glory|
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee or The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in what is now central Alabama. On March 27, 1814, United States forces and Indian allies under General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks, a part of the Creek tribe inspired by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh, effectively ending the Creek War.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend in Trail of Glory
The battle took its name from a bend in the Tallapoosa River where the Red Sticks had made camp. After the American troops under Andrew Jackson had bombarded the position without success, the decision was made to launch a frontal assault. Concurrently, Cherokee troops led by The Ridge and under the command of General John Coffee began a diversionary attack by fording the river a mile away, and attacking from the rear.
When word of the attack came, Jackson ordered the frontal assault, which was led by Major Leumel Montgomery. Montgomery was killed shortly after scaling the earthworks surrounding the Red Stick position, but his second in command, Ensign Sam Houston was able to carry the assault forward, despite receiving a minor leg wound.
The Red Sticks were quickly overwhelmed and fled to the Tallapoosa, where many were picked off by Coffee's cavalry. Several Red Sticks retreated to a ravine, and erected a hasty barricade. While Jackson was willing to offer terms of surrender, he realized that, given the fanaticism of the Red Sticks, this was unlikely. He also realized a frontal assault might be costly. Although Sam Houston offered to offer terms of surrender under a white flag (which he assured Jackson they would not accept) or lead the frontal assault, Jackson instead ordered the Cherokee to use their firearrows on the barricade. Those Red Sticks who fled the inferno were picked off.
The final total was 800 Red Sticks killed. Both primary leaders still lived: Menawa had escaped the battle, and William Weatherford had not been present at all. Nonetheless, the Red Sticks were so thoroughly crushed at the Battle of the Horseshoe Bend that Weatherford surrendered the following month.
Jackson was so impressed with Houston's conduct that he made Houston a protegé. In April, 1814, Houston and Jackson made an agreement that laid the foundation for the Confederacy of the Arkansas.